APPROXIMANT LÀ GÌ

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Lateral consonant

By Wikipedia,the không tính tiền encyclopedia,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_consonant

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Laterals are “L”-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue.

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Manners of articulation Obstruent
Stop
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
Flaps/Tap
Trill
Approximant
Liquid
Vowel
Semivowel
Lateral
Airstreams
Ejective
Implosive
Click

Most commonly the tip of the tongue makes liên hệ with the upper teeth (see dental consonant) or the upper gum (the alveolar ridge) just behind the teeth (see alveolar consonant). The most comtháng laterals are approximants và belong lớn the class of liquids.

Contents

2 List of laterals

Laterals in various languages

English has one lateral phoneme: the lateral approximant /l/, which in many accents has two allophones. One, found before vowels as in lady or fly, is called clear l, pronounced as the alveolar lateral approximant with a “neutral” position of the body toàn thân of the tongue. The other variant, so-called dark l found before consonants or word-finally, as in bold or tell, is pronounced as the velarized alveolar lateral approximant with the tongue assuming a spoon-lượt thích shape with its back part raised, which gives the sound a – or -lượt thích resonance. In some languages, like Albanian, those two sounds are different phonemes. East Slavic languages contrast và but vì not have a plain .

In many British accents (e.g. London English), dark may undergo vocalization through the reduction & loss of liên hệ between the tip of the tongue the alveolar ridge, becoming a rounded baông chồng vowel or glide. This process turns tell into something like . A similar process happened in Brazilian Portuguese và in Old French, resulting in , whence Modern French sauce as compared with Spanish salsa. Also in Polish historical (spelled ł ) has become even word-initially or between vowels.

In central and Venice dialects of Vènelớn intervocalic /l/ has turned inlớn a semivocalic , so that the written word la bala is pronounced .

Many aboriginal Australian languages have sầu a series of three or four lateral approximants, as bởi vì various dialects of Irish. Rarer lateral consonants include the retroflex laterals that can be found in most Indic languages và in some Swedish dialects; & the sound of Welsh ll, the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative sầu /ɬ/ that is also found in Zulu and many Semitic và Native sầu American languages. In Adyghe và some Athapaskan languages lượt thích Han both voiceless & voiced alveolar lateral fricative sầu occur, but there is no approximant. Many of these languages also have sầu lateral affricates. Some languages have palatal or velar voiceless lateral fricatives or affricates, such as Dahalo & Zulu but the IPA has no symbols for these sounds. However, appropriate symbols are easy khổng lồ make by adding a lateral-fricative belt to the symbol for the corresponding lateral approximant (see below). Failing that, a devoicing diacritic is added khổng lồ the approximant.

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Nearly all languages with such lateral obstruents also have sầu the approximant. However, Tlingit is an exception, with /tɬ, tɬʰ, tɬ’, ɬ, ɬ’/ but no /l/.

Tibechảy has a voiceless lateral approximant, usually romanized as lh, as in the name Lhasa.

Pashlớn has retroflex lateral flap.

A large number of lateral click consonants, 17, occur in !Xóõ.

List of laterals

Approximants

Fricatives

Affricates

Flaps

Clicks

Other symbols

The symbol for the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative forms the basis for the occasional ad hoc symbols for other voiceless lateral fricatives: retroflex, palatal, velar (the latter two only known from affricates):

The symbol for the alveolar lateral flap is the basis for the expected symbol for the retroflex lateral flap:

Such symbols are rare, but are becoming more common now that font-editing software has become accessible. chú ý however that since they are not sanctioned by the IPA, there are no Unicode values for them.

Notes

See also

References

Consonants

This table contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. Where symbols appear in pairs, the one khổng lồ the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged lớn be impossible.

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